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Research on theories and measures regarding emergency rescue management in enterprise production
2017-10-20 09:34:00 gdemo.gov.cn

In recent years, China's work on enterprise production emergency rescue has made outstanding achievements, playing an important role in guaranteeing production safety. However, the emergency rescue level of many enterprises cannot fully meet practical needs, and accidents happen occasionally due to improper enterprise emergency work and extension of accidents due to poor rescue, which may even cause ambulance crew casualties. According to statistics, most of the reasons for major accidents expose emergency rescue problems in varying degrees, from preparation to emergency management, and from management responsibilities to rescue measures, which reflect that problems are of multiple aspects, and severely restrict the improvement of overall emergency rescue ability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the current situation and problems of enterprise emergency rescue work, to find out the essential reasons, and to actively explore new measures to strengthen emergency rescue management based on theoretical analysis.

 

1.Enterprise emergency rescue management situation and problems


(1)Enterprise emergency rescue management


To sum up, the current enterprise emergency management faces problems of vacancy and dislocation.


First, lack of management. The risk pre-control, investigation and management of hidden dangers and other work in normal state, as well as the emergency management work in abnormal state should be mutually related and progressive in the enterprise production safety management process, but in some daily management of enterprises, the connection between these tasks is not close enough and is rather disjointed. For instance, tasks related to hidden danger management and emergency rescue management carry out risk analysis, monitoring and early warning respectively, lacking synthetic consideration or any integrated perspective. In comparison, companies pay more attention to the daily management of hidden dangers, rather than emergency management, assuming that by paying careful attention to daily risk investigation and management they can ignore emergency prevention. Emergency management in many enterprises is mere routine, holding perfunctory emergency drills of low quality once or twice a year.


Second, dislocation of management. Conceptually, the pre-accident danger emergency response is confused with the post-accident rescue, emergency rescue is viewed to mainly consist of post-accident rescue. In actual work, heavy accident rescue and light danger emergency response personnel only stress the development and drilling laid out in rescue plans, do not adequately understand their on-site emergency response programs, and lack emphasis on implementation. Some companies have no on-site disposal programs. Even enterprises that have developed on-site disposal programs focus on the making of post-accident response measures, and relatively ignore the emergency response requirements in pre-accident production or at the early stage of the accident, which also shows the tendency toward rescue in heavy accident and toward response in light dangerous situations.


Due to lack of and dislocation in emergency rescue management, enterprise emergency response capabilities vary greatly, with some companies not even having established an early warning mechanism for emergencies, lacking any basic emergency response capabilities; some enterprises possess some human and material resources for rescue operations, and have a certain degree of rescue capability. However, these resources are not effective under practical circumstances. Once an accident happens, they can only play a limited role.

 

(2)Developing emergency plans


According to the requirements of Guidelines to develop emergency response plan and Measures for the Administration of Contingency Plans for Work Safety Accidents, the enterprise emergency plan system consists of comprehensive plans, special plans and on-site emergency response plans. At present, the most prominent problems of the emergency plan are lack of pertinence and poor maneuverability, of which the main reason is that the setting of various types of plans needs to be improved.


This refers first to  the development of comprehensive plans, since currently, Chinese enterprises have not yet established a standardized enterprise emergency management system, and view emergency plans as the main starting point for emergency management. Comprehensive plans contain a broad range of content such as principles of emergency work, drill requirements and amendment of plans on record, resulting in complex plan contents without prominent focal points or targets.


Second, in the development of special plans, according to the requirements, enterprises need to set up a number of similar special plans according to the type of accident, such as gas explosions, water inrush in coal mine and other accidents. For example, the Shenhua Group is involved in the coal, electricity, transportation, and chemical industries as well as other fields, so the number of company-level special plans was more than 30, with basically the same core content, and part of setting overlapping with the elements of comprehensive plans. In fact, such a detailed and complex plan is not very effective in a real-life emergency scenario.


Third, the on-site emergency plan is given increasing attention, but the common problem is the unclear relationship between the disposal plan and the other two kinds of plans, and in some institutions, the contents of disposal plans are duplicates of the other two kinds of emergency plans. The relationship between different plans is in urgent need of further clarification in China's relevant standards and regulations.


Fourth, the contents of the plan are general and deficient. The current plan is not specific enough in its description of necessary relief supplies, funds, external experts, rescue teams and other elements, which affects the implementation of rescue measures. Especially in recent years, although the linkage mechanism among the government, enterprises, professional rescue teams and other parties is stressed, when it comes to the development of plans, there is still a huge gap: the regulations on interworking responsibilities, sharing of social resources and other aspects of joint rescue are not specific enough; the parties concerned lack close convergence in terms of plans development, which can impact the implementation of the linkage mechanism of relevant parties.

 

(3) Rescue team building


According to state regulations, manufacturers must have a professional rescue team or sign a service agreement with professional rescue teams. There are also strict layout requirements for the teams. After the development in recent years, China has formed emergency rescue team system of a certain scale. The number of national full-time rescue teams on mine and dangerous chemicals has reached 933, with a total of 68,300 members, of which more than 400 teams totaling 28,000 people work in the coal industry. Professional rescue teams are mainly established by strong (group) companies, whose main service targets are the (group) companies. Some teams also bear the responsibility of serving their surrounding enterprises. These rescue teams play an important role in emergency rescue in our country, but it should also be noted that in new situations, the development of rescue teams also faces many problems to be solved.
First, insufficient daily tasks. The role of rescue teams in daily actual task has not been given full play, and rescue tasks are significantly imbalanced. With the improvement of China's production safety and the reduction in the amount of accidents, the proportion of the rescue workload in total working hours of rescue teams continues to decrease, and the current average percentage is less than 10%. Some even have no rescue missions throughout the year, undertaking various other forms of daily work, and the workload is less than 30%. Most of their time is spent mainly on training.


Second, large team building investment. The cost of a 50-person mine rescue squadron, including wages, is seven-eight million yuan on average, up to ten million yuan, excluding the costs of the equipment and facilities. A normal rescue battalion has two or three squadrons, and  large ones have eight or nine squadrons and pose a larger investment.


Third, lack of relief funding channels. Currently, China has not established a clear channel for rescue funding and security mechanism. The daily expenses are mainly born by enterprises, and when accident rescue is needed, participation in social rescue outside the enterprise often at last becomes a voluntary free service, due to the poor economic efficiency of the institution who suffered the accident, who fails to provide enough relief funds, or is unwilling to pay. .
In short, rescue teams as operational enterprise-owned units, require a huge investment, but have little actual output. They have been a burden on enterprises, affecting the enthusiasm of rescue teams relying on investments from enterprises. Also, unqualified personnel, poor rescue equipment, low combat effectiveness, and limited roles of some teams mean they would be of little use in actual rescue scenarios. . These conditions hinder the robust development of rescue teams.

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